September 22, 2014 INSTALL 8 NetBSD

NAME

INSTALL - Installation procedure for NetBSD/shark.

CONTENTS

                                                              

About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................2 Changes Between The NetBSD 6.1.4 and 6.1.5 Releases............3 Security Advisory Fixes.....................................3 Other Security Fixes........................................3 Kernel......................................................3 Miscellaneous...............................................4 alpha.......................................................4 sparc64.....................................................4 next68k.....................................................4 The NetBSD Foundation..........................................4 Sources of NetBSD..............................................4 NetBSD 6.1.5 Release Contents..................................4 NetBSD/shark subdirectory structure.........................6 Binary distribution sets....................................6 NetBSD/shark System Requirements and Supported Devices.........7 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media...................7 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation..................9 Installing the NetBSD System...................................9 Installation for diskless configurations....................9 Installation onto a hard disk..............................10 Running the sysinst installation program...................10 Introduction............................................10 Possible hardware problems..............................10 General.................................................11 Quick install...........................................11 Booting NetBSD..........................................12 Network configuration...................................12 Installation drive selection and parameters.............12 Selecting which sets to install.........................12 Partitioning the disk...................................13 Preparing your hard disk................................13 Getting the distribution sets...........................13 Installation from CD-ROM................................14 Installation using ftp..................................14 Installation using NFS..................................14 Installation from an unmounted file system..............14 Installation from a local directory.....................14 Extracting the distribution sets........................15 Configure additional items..............................15 Finalizing your installation............................15 Post installation steps.......................................15 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................17 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............18 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 5.x releases.......18 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases.......19 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................19 Administrivia.................................................20 Thanks go to..................................................20 We are........................................................21 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................27 The End.......................................................32

DESCRIPTION

About this Document

This document describes the installation procedure for NetBSD 6.1.5 on the shark platform. It is available in four different formats titled INSTALL.ext, where .ext is one of .ps, .html, .more, or .txt:

.ps
PostScript.

.html
Standard Internet HTML.

.more
The enhanced text format used on UNIX-like systems by the more(1) and less(1) pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.

.txt
Plain old ASCII.

You are reading the HTML version.

What is NetBSD?

The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on 57 different system architectures (ports) across 15 distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD 6.1.5 release contains complete binary releases for many different system architectures. (A few ports are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. Please see the NetBSD web site at http://www.NetBSD.org/ for information on them.)

NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.

NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.

Changes Between The NetBSD 6.1.4 and 6.1.5 Releases

NetBSD 6.1.5 is the fifth critical/security update of the NetBSD 6.1 release branch. It represents a selected subset of fixes deemed critical for security or stability reasons.

The complete list of changes can be found in the CHANGES-6.1.5: http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-6.1.5/CHANGES-6.1.5 file in the top level directory of the NetBSD 6.1.5 release tree. An abbreviated list is as follows:

Security Advisory Fixes

Advisories prior to NetBSD-SA2014-005 do not affect NetBSD 6.1.5: http://www.NetBSD.org/support/security/patches-6.1.5.html.

Other Security Fixes
Kernel
Miscellaneous
alpha
sparc64
next68k

The NetBSD Foundation

The NetBSD Foundation is a tax exempt, not-for-profit 501(c)(3) corporation that devotes itself to the traditional goals and Spirit of the NetBSD Project and owns the trademark of the word ``NetBSD''. It supports the design, development, and adoption of NetBSD worldwide. More information on the NetBSD Foundation, its composition, aims, and work can be found at: http://www.NetBSD.org/foundation/

Sources of NetBSD

Refer to http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/

NetBSD 6.1.5 Release Contents

The root directory of the NetBSD 6.1.5 release is organized as follows:

.../NetBSD-6.1.5/

CHANGES
Changes between the 5.0 and 6.0 releases.

CHANGES-6.0
Changes between the initial 6.0 branch and final release of 6.0.

CHANGES-6.1
Changes between the final release of 6.0 and final release of 6.1.

CHANGES-6.1.1
Changes between the final release of 6.1 and final release of 6.1.1.

CHANGES-6.1.2
Changes between the final release of 6.1.1 and final release of 6.1.2.

CHANGES-6.1.3
Changes between the final release of 6.1.2 and final release of 6.1.3.

CHANGES-6.1.4
Changes between the final release of 6.1.3 and final release of 6.1.4.

CHANGES-6.1.5
Changes between the final release of 6.1.4 and final release of 6.1.5.

CHANGES.prev
Changes in previous NetBSD releases.

LAST_MINUTE
Last minute changes and notes about the release.

README.files
README describing the distribution's contents.

source/
Source distribution sets; see below.

In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD 6.1.5 has a binary distribution.

The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the source subdirectory of the distribution tree. They contain the complete sources to the system. The source distribution sets are as follows:

gnusrc
This set contains the ``gnu'' sources, including the source for the compiler, assembler, groff, and the other GNU utilities in the binary distribution sets.

sharesrc
This set contains the ``share'' sources, which include the sources for the man pages not associated with any particular program; the sources for the typesettable document set; the dictionaries; and more.

src
This set contains all of the base NetBSD 6.1.5 sources which are not in gnusrc, sharesrc, or syssrc.

syssrc
This set contains the sources to the NetBSD 6.1.5 kernel for all architectures as well as the config(1) utility.

xsrc
This set contains the sources to the X Window System.

All the above source sets are located in the source/sets subdirectory of the distribution tree.

The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files. Except for the pkgsrc set, which is traditionally unpacked into /usr/pkgsrc, all sets may be unpacked into /usr/src with the command:
       # cd / ; tar -zxpf set_name.tgz

In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:

MD5
MD5 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a MD5 file.

SHA512
SHA512 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a SHA512 file.

The SHA512 digest is safer, but MD5 checksums are provided so that a wider range of operating systems can check the integrity of the release files.

NetBSD/shark subdirectory structure
The shark-specific portion of the NetBSD 6.1.5 release is found in the shark subdirectory of the distribution: .../NetBSD-6.1.5/shark/. It contains the following files and directories:

INSTALL.html
INSTALL.ps
INSTALL.txt
INSTALL.more
Installation notes in various file formats, including this file. The .more file contains underlined text using the more(1) conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
binary/
kernel/
netbsd-GENERIC.gz
A gzipped NetBSD kernel containing code for everything supported in this release.
sets/
shark binary distribution sets; see below.
installation/
misc/
Miscellaneous shark installation utilities; see installation section below.
Binary distribution sets
The NetBSD shark binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the NetBSD 6.1.5 release for shark. The binary distribution sets can be found in the shark/binary/sets subdirectory of the NetBSD 6.1.5 distribution tree, and are as follows:

base
The NetBSD 6.1.5 shark base binary distribution. You must install this distribution set. It contains the base NetBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional.

comp
Things needed for compiling programs. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.

etc
This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.

games
This set includes the games and their manual pages.

kern-GENERIC
This set contains a NetBSD/shark 6.1.5 GENERIC kernel, named /netbsd. You must install this distribution set. This set also contains an a.out kernel named /netbsd.aout that your system may need to boot.

man
This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets.

misc
This set includes the system dictionaries, the typesettable document set, and other files from /usr/share.

text
This set includes NetBSD's text processing tools, including groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.

NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on X.Org. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:

xbase
The basic files needed for a complete X client environment. This does not include the X servers.

xcomp
The extra libraries and include files needed to compile X source code.

xfont
Fonts needed by the X server and by X clients.

xetc
Configuration files for X which could be locally modified.

xserver
The X server. This includes the modular Xorg and Xvfb servers.

The shark binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files named with the extension .tgz, e.g. base.tgz.

The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore the files are extracted below the current directory. Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e. replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the tar -xzpf command from the root directory ( / ) of your system.

Note:
Each directory in the shark binary distribution also has its own checksum files, just as the source distribution does.

NetBSD/shark System Requirements and Supported Devices

NetBSD/shark runs on systems based on the Digital Network Appliance Reference Design (or DNARD, pronounced ``shark'' ). The DNARD is a ``network computer'' based on the Digital StrongARM SA-110 processor, and can be configured with up to 64MB of RAM.

NetBSD/shark supports all of the standard on-board devices on the DNARD:


Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media

Installation is supported from several media types, including:

The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation depend upon which installation medium you choose. The steps for the various media are outlined below.

CD-ROM / DVD
Find out where the distribution set files are on the CD-ROM or DVD. Likely locations are binary/sets and shark/binary/sets.

Proceed to the instructions on installation.

FTP
The preparations for this installation/upgrade method are easy; all you need to do is make sure that there's an FTP site from which you can retrieve the NetBSD distribution when you're about to install or upgrade. If you don't have DHCP available on your network, you will need to know the numeric IP address of that site, and, if it's not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.

Once you have this information, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

NFS
Place the NetBSD distribution sets you wish to install into a directory on an NFS server, and make that directory mountable by the machine on which you are installing or upgrading NetBSD. This will probably require modifying the /etc/exports file on the NFS server and resetting its mount daemon (mountd). (Both of these actions will probably require superuser privileges on the server.)

You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS server, and, if you don't have DHCP available on your network and the server is not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.

Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the information mentioned above, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

Tape
To install NetBSD from a tape, you need to make a tape that contains the distribution set files, in `tar' format.

If you're making the tape on a UNIX-like system, the easiest way to do so is probably something like:

       # tar -cf tape_device dist_directories

where tape_device is the name of the tape device that describes the tape drive you're using; possibly /dev/rst0, or something similar, but it will vary from system to system. (If you can't figure it out, ask your system administrator.) In the above example, dist_directories are the distribution sets' directories, for the distribution sets you wish to place on the tape. For instance, to put the kern-GENERIC, base, and etc distributions on tape (in order to do the absolute minimum installation to a new disk), you would do the following:


       # cd .../NetBSD-6.1.5
       # cd shark/binary
       # tar -cf tape_device kern-GENERIC base etc

Note:
You still need to fill in tape_device in the example.

Once you have the files on the tape, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.


Preparing your System for NetBSD installation

First and foremost, before beginning the installation process, make sure you have a reliable backup of any data on your hard disk that you wish to keep. Repartitioning your hard disk is an excellent way to destroy important data.

The Shark platform is most commonly run in a ``diskless'' configuration. That is, the system loads its kernel over the network and uses NFS to access its root file system from a server. It is possible, however, to install NetBSD/shark onto a disk drive; some Shark models included IDE ZIP drives, and it is also possible to mount a laptop drive inside the Shark case (this is left as an exercise for the reader).

If you are going to run your Shark in a diskless configuration, you must set up DHCP, TFTP, and NFS on your server; the Shark firmware and kernel use DHCP to obtain their network configuration, the Shark firmware loads the kernel using TFTP, and the Shark kernel uses NFS to access the root file system. See your server system's documentation on how to configure these services.

If you are going to run your Shark from a disk, there is essentially no preparation work that you need to do; the Shark firmware understands the NetBSD partition map and FFS file system formats, and loads the kernel directly from an FFS file system. However, you must still configure a DHCP and TFTP server on your network, since the installation software must be loaded over the network.

Installing the NetBSD System

The steps taken for installing NetBSD/shark are different for diskless and hard disk configurations.

Installation for diskless configurations
This section assumes you know how to configure DHCP, TFTP, and NFS services on your server.

  1. Place the kernel into the TFTP server's download area. If the kernel has a ``.gz'' suffix, you must first uncompress it using the gunzip program.

           server# cp netbsd-GENERIC /tftpboot/netbsd-shark

    Note that your DHCP server must be configured to specify this file as the boot file for the client.

  2. Unpack the distribution sets into the client's root directory on the server.


           server# cd /export/client/shark
           server# gzcat .../base.tgz | tar xvpf -
           server# gzcat .../etc.tgz | tar xvpf -
           [repeat for all sets you wish to unpack]

  3. Load the kernel from the TFTP server.


           ok boot net

The installation of your diskless NetBSD/shark system is now complete! You may now skip ahead to any post-installation instructions.

Installation onto a hard disk
To install or upgrade NetBSD/shark on a hard disk, you need to first boot the installation program and then interact with the screen-menu program sysinst. The installation program actually consists of the NetBSD kernel plus an in-memory file system of utility programs.

If you have an existing NetBSD installation on your hard disk, you may copy the special installation kernel into your existing root file system.


       client# gzcat .../shark/installation/instkernel/netbsd.gz > /netbsd.inst

You may then boot the installation kernel.


       ok boot disk netbsd.inst

If you do not have an existing NetBSD installation, then you must load the installation kernel over the network. You must configure a DHCP and TFTP server in order to do this.

Place the installation kernel into the TFTP server's download area.


       server# gzcat .../shark/installation/instkernel/netbsd.gz > /tftpboot/shark-inst

Note that your DHCP server must be configured to specify this file as the boot file for the client.

You may then boot the installation kernel.


       ok boot net

Once the installation kernel has loaded, the sysinst installation program should launch automatically.

Running the sysinst installation program

  1. Introduction

    Using sysinst, installing NetBSD is a relatively easy process. Still, you should read this document and have it in hand when doing the installation process. This document tries to be a good guide to the installation, and as such, covers many details for the sake of completeness. Do not let this discourage you; the install program is not hard to use.

  2. Possible hardware problems

    Should you encounter hardware problems during installation, try rebooting after unplugging removable devices you don't need for installation. Non-removable devices can be disabled with userconf (use boot -c to enter it).

  3. General

    The following is a walk-through of the steps you will take while getting NetBSD installed on your hard disk. sysinst is a menu driven installation system that allows for some freedom in doing the installation. Sometimes, questions will be asked and in many cases the default answer will be displayed in brackets (``[ ]'') after the question. If you wish to stop the installation, you may press CONTROL-C at any time, but if you do, you'll have to begin the installation process again from scratch by running the /sysinst program from the command prompt. It is not necessary to reboot.

  4. Quick install

    First, let's describe a quick install. The other sections of this document go into the installation procedure in more detail, but you may find that you do not need this. If you want detailed instructions, skip to the next section. This section describes a basic installation, using a CD-ROM install as an example.

  5. Booting NetBSD

    Boot your machine. The boot loader will start, and will print a countdown and begin booting.

    If the boot loader messages do not appear in a reasonable amount of time, you either have a bad boot floppy or a hardware problem. Try writing the install floppy image to a different disk, and using that.

    It will take a while to load the kernel from the floppy, probably around a minute or so, then, the kernel boot messages will be displayed. This may take a little while also, as NetBSD will be probing your system to discover which hardware devices are installed. The most important thing to know is that wd0 is NetBSD's name for your first IDE disk, wd1 the second, etc. sd0 is your first SCSI disk, sd1 the second, etc.

    Note that once the system has finished booting, you need not leave the floppy in the disk drive.

    Once NetBSD has booted and printed all the boot messages, you will be presented with a welcome message and a main menu. It will also include instructions for using the menus.

  6. Network configuration

    If you do not intend to use networking during the installation, but you do want your machine to be configured for networking once it is installed, you should first go to the Utility menu and select the Configure network option. If you only want to temporarily use networking during the installation, you can specify these parameters later. If you are not using the Domain Name System (DNS), you can give an empty response when asked to provide a server.

  7. Installation drive selection and parameters

    To start the installation, select Install NetBSD to hard disk from the main menu.

    The first thing is to identify the disk on which you want to install NetBSD. sysinst will report a list of disks it finds and ask you for your selection. You should see disk names like sd0 or sd1.

  8. Selecting which sets to install

    The next step is to choose which distribution sets you wish to install. Options are provided for full, minimal, and custom installations. If you choose sets on your own, base, etc, and a kernel must be selected.

  9. Partitioning the disk

  10. Editing the NetBSD disklabel

    The partition table of the NetBSD part of a disk is called a disklabel. If your disk already has a disklabel written to it, you can choose Use existing partition sizes. Otherwise, select Set sizes of NetBSD partitions.

    After you have chosen your partitions and their sizes (or if you opted to use the existing partitions), you will be presented with the layout of the NetBSD disklabel and given one more chance to change it. For each partition, you can set the type, offset and size, block and fragment size, and the mount point. The type that NetBSD uses for normal file storage is called 4.2BSD. A swap partition has a special type called swap. Some partitions in the disklabel have a fixed purpose.

    a
    Root partition (/)

    b
    Swap partition.

    c
    The NetBSD portion of the disk.

    d-h
    Available for other use. Traditionally, e is the partition mounted on /usr, but this is historical practice and not a fixed value.

    You will then be asked to name your disk's disklabel. The default response will be ok for most purposes. If you choose to name it something different, make sure the name is a single word and contains no special characters. You don't need to remember this name.

  11. Preparing your hard disk

    You are now at the point of no return. Nothing has been written to your disk yet, but if you confirm that you want to install NetBSD, your hard drive will be modified. If you are sure you want to proceed, select yes.

    The install program will now label your disk and make the file systems you specified. The file systems will be initialized to contain NetBSD bootstrapping binaries and configuration files. You will see messages on your screen from the various NetBSD disk preparation tools that are running. There should be no errors in this section of the installation. If there are, restart from the beginning of the installation process. Otherwise, you can continue the installation program after pressing the return key.

  12. Getting the distribution sets

    The NetBSD distribution consists of a number of sets that come in the form of gzipped tarfiles. At this point, you will be presented with a menu which enables you to choose from one of the following methods of installing the sets. Some of these methods will first load the sets on your hard disk, others will extract the sets directly.

    For all these methods, the first step is making the sets available for extraction, and then do the actual installation. The sets can be made available in a few different ways. The following sections describe each of those methods. After reading the one about the method you will be using, you can continue to the section labeled `Extracting the distribution sets'.

  13. Installation from CD-ROM

    When installing from a CD-ROM, you will be asked to specify the device name for your CD-ROM drive (usually cd0), and the directory name on the CD-ROM where the distribution files are.

    sysinst will then check if the files are indeed available in the specified location, and proceed to the actual extraction of the sets.

  14. Installation using ftp

    To be able to install using ftp, you first need to configure your network setup if you haven't already done so. sysinst will do this for you, asking you if you want to use DHCP. If you do not use DHCP, you can enter network configuration details yourself. If you do not have DNS set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to this question, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, the directory on that host, the account name and password used to log into that host using ftp, and optionally a proxy server to use. If you did not set up DNS, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the ftp server.

    sysinst will proceed to transfer all the default set files from the remote site to your hard disk.

  15. Installation using NFS

    To be able to install using NFS, you first need to configure your network setup if you haven't already done so. sysinst will do this for you, asking you if you want to use DHCP. If you do not use DHCP, you can enter network configuration details yourself. If you do not have DNS set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to this question, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from and the directory on that host that the files are in. This directory should be mountable by the machine you are installing on, i.e., correctly exported to your machine.

    If you did not set up DNS, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the NFS server.

  16. Installation from an unmounted file system

    In order to install from a local file system, you will need to specify the device that the file system resides on (for example sd1e) the type of the file system, and the directory on the specified file system where the sets are located. sysinst will then check if it can indeed access the sets at that location.

  17. Installation from a local directory

    This option assumes that you have already done some preparation yourself. The sets should be located in a directory on a file system that is already accessible. sysinst will ask you for the name of this directory.

  18. Extracting the distribution sets

    A progress bar will be displayed while the distribution sets are being extracted.

    After all the files have been extracted, the device node files will be created. If you have already configured networking, you will be asked if you want to use this configuration for normal operation. If so, these values will be installed in the network configuration files.

  19. Configure additional items

    The next menu will allow you to select a number of additional items to configure, including the time zone that you're in, to make sure your clock has the right offset from UTC, the root user's shell, and the initial root password.

    You can also enable installation of binary packages, which installs the pkgin(1) tool for managing binary packages for third-party software. This will feel familiar to users of other package tools, such as apt-get or yum. Or, you can install the pkgsrc(7) tree for installing third-party software from source.

    Finally, you can enable some daemons such as sshd(8), ntpd(8), or mdnsd(8).

  20. Finalizing your installation

    Congratulations, you have successfully installed NetBSD 6.1.5. You can now reboot the machine and boot NetBSD from hard disk.


Post installation steps

Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state. The most important steps are described below.

  1. Configuring /etc/rc.conf

    If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf (sysinst usually will), the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the message

           /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted.

    and with the root file system (/) mounted read-only. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press RETURN to get to a /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with vt220 (or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and press RETURN. You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
           # stty erase '^h'
           # stty erase '^?'
    At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
           # /sbin/mount -u -w /
    Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set rc_configured=YES so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can proceed. Default values for the various programs can be found in /etc/defaults/rc.conf, where some in-line documentation may be found. More complete documentation can be found in rc.conf(5).

    When you have finished editing /etc/rc.conf, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.

    Other values that may need to be set in /etc/rc.conf for a networked environment are hostname and possibly defaultroute. You may also need to add an ifconfig_int for your <int> network interface, along the lines of


           ifconfig_cs0="inet 192.0.2.123 netmask 255.255.255.0"

    or, if you have myname.my.dom in /etc/hosts:


           ifconfig_cs0="inet myname.my.dom netmask 255.255.255.0"

    To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an /etc/resolv.conf file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run named(8). See resolv.conf(5) or named(8) for more information. Instead of manually configuring network and naming service, DHCP can be used by setting dhclient=YES in /etc/rc.conf.

    Other files in /etc that may require modification or setting up include /etc/mailer.conf, /etc/nsswitch.conf, and /etc/wscons.conf.

    For Digital DNARD machines you will need to edit /etc/ttys and change the console terminal type from vt100 to pc3.

  2. Logging in

    After reboot, you can log in as root at the login prompt. Unless you've set a password in sysinst, there is no initial password. You should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the ``root'' account with good passwords. By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via ssh(1)). One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different user that belongs to group ``wheel'' (see group(5)) and use su(1) to become root.

  3. Adding accounts

    Use the useradd(8) command to add accounts to your system. Do not edit /etc/passwd directly! See vipw(8) and pwd_mkdb(8) if you want to edit the password database.

  4. The X Window System

    If you installed the X Window System, you may want to read the chapter about X in the NetBSD Guide: http://netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-x.html

  5. Installing third party packages

    If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system, pkgsrc. pkgsrc automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD. This includes the retrieval and installation of any other packages on which the software may depend.

  6. Misc

Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

The easiest way to upgrade to NetBSD 6.1.5 is with binaries, and that is the method documented here.

To do the upgrade, you must have one form of boot media available. You must also have at least the base and kern binary distribution sets available. Finally, you must have sufficient disk space available to install the new binaries. Since files already installed on the system are overwritten in place, you only need additional free space for files which weren't previously installed or to account for growth of the sets between releases. If you have a few megabytes free on each of your root (/) and /usr partitions, you should have enough space.

Since upgrading involves replacing the kernel, boot blocks, and most of the system binaries, it has the potential to cause data loss. You are strongly advised to back up any important data on the NetBSD partition or on another operating system's partition on your disk before beginning the upgrade process.

The upgrade procedure is similar to an installation, but without the hard disk partitioning. sysinst will attempt to merge the settings stored in your /etc directory with the new version of NetBSD. Also, file systems are checked before unpacking the sets. Fetching the binary sets is done in the same manner as the installation procedure; refer to the installation part of the document for help.

After a new kernel has been copied to your hard disk, your machine is a complete NetBSD 6.1.5 system. However, that doesn't mean that you're finished with the upgrade process. You will probably want to update the set of device nodes you have in /dev. If you've changed the contents of /dev by hand, you will need to be careful about this, but if not, you can just cd into /dev, and run the command:

       # sh MAKEDEV all

Finally, you will want to delete old binaries that were part of the version of NetBSD that you upgraded from and have since been removed from the NetBSD distribution.

Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases

Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD 6.1.5.

Note that sysinst will automatically invoke

postinstall fix
and thus all issues that are fixed by postinstall by default (see below) will be handled.
Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 5.x releases

The pthread libraries from previous versions of NetBSD require that the sysctl(3) node kern.no_sa_support be set to 0. This affects the following environments:

The 5.0 kernel defaults to 0 for kern.no_sa_support, which covers the first case. However, please note that a full installation of 5.0 (either from scratch or through an upgrade) will set kern.no_sa_support to 1 during the boot process. This means that for the last two cases, you will have to manually set kern.no_sa_support to 0, using either the sysctl(8) command or through sysctl.conf(5).

The implementation of SHA2-HMAC in KAME_IPSEC as used in NetBSD-5 and before did not comply to current standards. FAST_IPSEC does, with the result that old and new systems cannot communicate over IPSEC, if one of the affected authentication algorithms (hmac_sha256, hmac_sha384, hmac_sha512) is used.

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases

The following issues can generally be resolved by running postinstall with the etc set:

postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix

Issues fixed by postinstall:

The following issues need to be resolved manually:

Using online NetBSD documentation

Documentation is available if you installed the manual distribution set. Traditionally, the ``man pages'' (documentation) are denoted by `name(section)'. Some examples of this are

The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.

The man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man [section] topic. The brackets [] around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter


       # man passwd

to read the documentation for passwd(1). To view the documentation for passwd(5), enter


       # man 5 passwd

instead.

If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter


       # apropos subject-word

where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.

Administrivia

If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.org. To get help on using the mailing list server, send mail to that address with an empty body, and it will reply with instructions. See http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/ for a web interface.

There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.org.

To report bugs, use the send-pr(1) command shipped with NetBSD, and fill in as much information about the problem as you can. Good bug reports include lots of details.

Bugs also can be submitted and queried with the web interface at http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html

There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses, or visit http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/

If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the `owner' of that port (listed below).

If you'd like to help with this effort, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-users@NetBSD.org.

As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP or WWW somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it, or, if you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.

Thanks go to

We are...

(in alphabetical order)


The NetBSD core group:
Alan Barrettapb@NetBSD.org
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.org
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

The portmasters (and their ports):
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud acorn32
Matt Thomasmatt alpha
Ignatios Souvatzisis amiga
Ignatios Souvatzisis amigappc
Noriyuki Sodasoda arc
Julian Colemanjdc atari
Matthias Drochnerdrochner cesfic
Erik Berlscyber cobalt
Antti Kanteepooka emips
Simon Burgesimonb evbmips
Steve Woodfordscw evbppc
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui ews4800mips
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui hp300
Nick Hudsonskrll hp700
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe hpcsh
Matt Thomasmatt ibmnws
Gavan Fantomgavan iyonix
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe landisk
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui luna68k
Scott Reynoldsscottr mac68k
Michael Lorenzmacallan macppc
Steve Woodfordscw mvme68k
Steve Woodfordscw mvmeppc
Matt Thomasmatt netwinder
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui news68k
Tim Rightnourgarbled ofppc
Simon Burgesimonb pmax
Tim Rightnourgarbled prep
Tim Rightnourgarbled rs6000
Tohru Nishimuranisimura sandpoint
Simon Burgesimonb sbmips
Søren Jørvangsoren sgimips
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh sh3
Martin Husemannmartin sparc64
Anders Magnussonragge vax
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks x68k
Manuel Bouyerbouyer xen

The NetBSD 6.1.5 Release Engineering team:
Stephen Borrillsborrill@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Alistair G. Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
Jeremy C. Reedreed@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.org

NetBSD Developers:
Nathan Ahlstromnra@NetBSD.org
Steve Allenwormey@NetBSD.org
Jukka Andbergjandberg@NetBSD.org
Julian Assangeproff@NetBSD.org
Lennart Augustssonaugustss@NetBSD.org
Zafer Aydoganzafer@NetBSD.org
Christoph Badurabad@NetBSD.org
Marc Balmermbalmer@NetBSD.org
Bang Jun-Youngjunyoung@NetBSD.org
Dieter Barondillo@NetBSD.org
Robert V. Baronrvb@NetBSD.org
Alan Barrettapb@NetBSD.org
Grant Beattiegrant@NetBSD.org
Erik Berlscyber@NetBSD.org
Hiroyuki Besshobsh@NetBSD.org
John Birrelljb@NetBSD.org
Rafal Bonirafal@NetBSD.org
Stephen Borrillsborrill@NetBSD.org
Sean Boudreauseanb@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
Allen Briggsbriggs@NetBSD.org
Mark Brinicombemark@NetBSD.org
Aaron Brownabrown@NetBSD.org
Andrew Brownatatat@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
Jon Bullerjonb@NetBSD.org
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org
Robert Byrnesbyrnes@NetBSD.org
Pavel Cahynapavel@NetBSD.org
D'Arcy J.M. Caindarcy@NetBSD.org
Taylor R. Campbellriastradh@NetBSD.org
Daniel Carosonedan@NetBSD.org
Dave Carrelcarrel@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Mihai Chelarukefren@NetBSD.org
Aleksey Cheusovcheusov@NetBSD.org
Bill Coldwellbillc@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Marcus Comstedtmarcus@NetBSD.org
Jeremy Cooperjeremy@NetBSD.org
Thomas Corttcort@NetBSD.org
Chuck Cranorchuck@NetBSD.org
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Johan Danielssonjoda@NetBSD.org
John Darrowjdarrow@NetBSD.org
Jed Davisjld@NetBSD.org
Matt DeBergalisdeberg@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Degrootedegroote@NetBSD.org
Rob Dekerdeker@NetBSD.org
Chris G. Demetrioucgd@NetBSD.org
Tracy Di Marco Whitegendalia@NetBSD.org
Jaromír Dolecekjdolecek@NetBSD.org
Andy Doranad@NetBSD.org
Roland Dowdeswellelric@NetBSD.org
Steven Drakesbd@NetBSD.org
Emmanuel Dreyfusmanu@NetBSD.org
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.org
Jun Ebiharajun@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Jaime A Fournierober@NetBSD.org
Stoned Elipotseb@NetBSD.org
Michael van Elstmlelstv@NetBSD.org
Enami Tsugutomoenami@NetBSD.org
Bernd Ernestiveego@NetBSD.org
Erik Fairfair@NetBSD.org
Gavan Fantomgavan@NetBSD.org
Hauke Fathhauke@NetBSD.org
Hubert Feyrerhubertf@NetBSD.org
Jason R. Finkjrf@NetBSD.org
Matt J. Flemingmjf@NetBSD.org
Marty Foutsmarty@NetBSD.org
Liam J. Foyliamjfoy@NetBSD.org
Matt Fredettefredette@NetBSD.org
Thorsten Frueauffrueauf@NetBSD.org
Castor Fucastor@NetBSD.org
Makoto Fujiwaramef@NetBSD.org
Ichiro Fukuharaichiro@NetBSD.org
Quentin Garniercube@NetBSD.org
Thomas Gernerthomas@NetBSD.org
Simon J. Gerratysjg@NetBSD.org
Justin Gibbsgibbs@NetBSD.org
Chris Gilbertchris@NetBSD.org
Eric Gillespieepg@NetBSD.org
Brian Ginsbachginsbach@NetBSD.org
Oliver V. Gouldver@NetBSD.org
Paul Goyettepgoyette@NetBSD.org
Michael Graffexplorer@NetBSD.org
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.org
Andreas Gustafssongson@NetBSD.org
Ulrich Habelrhaen@NetBSD.org
Jun-ichiro itojun Haginoitojun@NetBSD.org
HAMAJIMA Katsuomihamajima@NetBSD.org
Adam Hamsikhaad@NetBSD.org
Juergen Hannken-Illjeshannken@NetBSD.org
Charles M. Hannummycroft@NetBSD.org
Yorick Hardyyhardy@NetBSD.org
Ben Harrisbjh21@NetBSD.org
Eric Haszlakiewiczerh@NetBSD.org
John Hawkinsonjhawk@NetBSD.org
Emile Heitorimil@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Lars Heidiekerpara@NetBSD.org
Geert Hendrickxghen@NetBSD.org
René Hexelrh@NetBSD.org
Iain Hibbertplunky@NetBSD.org
Kouichirou Hiratsukahira@NetBSD.org
Michael L. Hitchmhitch@NetBSD.org
Ádám Hókaahoka@NetBSD.org
Jachym Holecekfreza@NetBSD.org
David A. Hollanddholland@NetBSD.org
Christian E. Hoppschopps@NetBSD.org
Daniel Horeckimorr@NetBSD.org
Ken Hornsteinkenh@NetBSD.org
Marc Horowitzmarc@NetBSD.org
Eduardo Horvatheeh@NetBSD.org
Nick Hudsonskrll@NetBSD.org
Shell Hungshell@NetBSD.org
Darran Huntdarran@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Dean Huxleydean@NetBSD.org
Love Hörnquist Åstrandlha@NetBSD.org
Roland Illigrillig@NetBSD.org
Bernardo Innocentibernie@NetBSD.org
Tetsuya Isakiisaki@NetBSD.org
ITOH Yasufumiitohy@NetBSD.org
IWAMOTO Toshihirotoshii@NetBSD.org
Matthew Jacobmjacob@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Lonhyn T. Jasinskyjlonhyn@NetBSD.org
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.org
Nicolas Jolynjoly@NetBSD.org
Søren Jørvangsoren@NetBSD.org
Takahiro Kambetaca@NetBSD.org
Antti Kanteepooka@NetBSD.org
Frank Kardelkardel@NetBSD.org
KAWAMOTO Yosihisakawamoto@NetBSD.org
Min Sik Kimminskim@NetBSD.org
KIYOHARA Takashikiyohara@NetBSD.org
Thomas Klausnerwiz@NetBSD.org
Klaus Kleinkleink@NetBSD.org
John Klosjklos@NetBSD.org
Wayne Knowleswdk@NetBSD.org
Takayoshi Kochikochi@NetBSD.org
Jonathan A. Kollaschjakllsch@NetBSD.org
Radoslaw Kujawarkujawa@NetBSD.org
Jochen Kunzjkunz@NetBSD.org
Martti Kuparinenmartti@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Lacombealc@NetBSD.org
Kevin Laheykml@NetBSD.org
David Laightdsl@NetBSD.org
Johnny C. Lamjlam@NetBSD.org
Guillaume Lasmayousgls@NetBSD.org
Martin J. Laubachmjl@NetBSD.org
Greg Leheygrog@NetBSD.org
Ted Lemonmellon@NetBSD.org
Christian Limpachcl@NetBSD.org
Frank van der Lindenfvdl@NetBSD.org
Joel Lindholmjoel@NetBSD.org
Tonnerre Lombardtonnerre@NetBSD.org
Mike Longmikel@NetBSD.org
Michael Lorenzmacallan@NetBSD.org
Warner Loshimp@NetBSD.org
Tomasz Luchowskizuntum@NetBSD.org
Federico Lupifederico@NetBSD.org
Brett Lymnblymn@NetBSD.org
MAEKAWA Masahidegehenna@NetBSD.org
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.org
John Marinomarino@NetBSD.org
Roy Marplesroy@NetBSD.org
Cherry G. Mathewcherry@NetBSD.org
David Maxwelldavid@NetBSD.org
Gregory McGarrygmcgarry@NetBSD.org
Dan McMahilldmcmahill@NetBSD.org
Jared D. McNeilljmcneill@NetBSD.org
Neil J. McRaeneil@NetBSD.org
Julio M. Merino Vidaljmmv@NetBSD.org
Perry Metzgerperry@NetBSD.org
Luke Mewburnlukem@NetBSD.org
Jean-Yves Migeonjym@NetBSD.org
Brook Milliganbrook@NetBSD.org
Minoura Makotominoura@NetBSD.org
Simas Mockeviciussymka@NetBSD.org
der Mousemouse@NetBSD.org
Constantine A. Murenincnst@NetBSD.org
Joseph Myersjsm@NetBSD.org
Tuomo Mäkinentjam@NetBSD.org
Zoltán Arnold NAGYzoltan@NetBSD.org
Ken Nakatakenn@NetBSD.org
Takeshi Nakayamanakayama@NetBSD.org
Alexander Nasonovalnsn@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
John Nemethjnemeth@NetBSD.org
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks@NetBSD.org
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org
NONAKA Kimihirononaka@NetBSD.org
Takehiko NOZAKItnozaki@NetBSD.org
Tobias Nygrentnn@NetBSD.org
OBATA Akioobache@NetBSD.org
Jesse Offjoff@NetBSD.org
Tatoku Ogaitotacha@NetBSD.org
OKANO Takayoshikano@NetBSD.org
Masaru Okioki@NetBSD.org
Ryo ONODERAryoon@NetBSD.org
Atsushi Onoeonoe@NetBSD.org
Greg Osteroster@NetBSD.org
Jonathan Perkinsketch@NetBSD.org
Fredrik Pettaipettai@NetBSD.org
Herb Peyerlhpeyerl@NetBSD.org
Matthias Pfallermatthias@NetBSD.org
Chris Pinnockcjep@NetBSD.org
Adrian Portelliadrianp@NetBSD.org
Chris Provenzanoproven@NetBSD.org
Mindaugas Rasiukeviciusrmind@NetBSD.org
Michael Rauchmrauch@NetBSD.org
Marc Rechtrecht@NetBSD.org
Darren Reeddarrenr@NetBSD.org
Jeremy C. Reedreed@NetBSD.org
Jens Rehsacksno@NetBSD.org
Antoine Reillestonio@NetBSD.org
Tyler R. Retzlaffrtr@NetBSD.org
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.org
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org
Hans Rosenfeldhans@NetBSD.org
Steve Rumblerumble@NetBSD.org
Rumkorumko@NetBSD.org
Jukka Ruohonenjruoho@NetBSD.org
Blair J. Sadewitzbjs@NetBSD.org
David Saintydsainty@NetBSD.org
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.org
Kazuki Sakamotosakamoto@NetBSD.org
Curt Sampsoncjs@NetBSD.org
Wilfredo Sanchezwsanchez@NetBSD.org
Ty Sarnatsarna@NetBSD.org
SATO Kazumisato@NetBSD.org
Jan Schaumannjschauma@NetBSD.org
Matthias Schelertron@NetBSD.org
Silke Schelersilke@NetBSD.org
Karl Schilke (rAT)rat@NetBSD.org
Amitai Schlairschmonz@NetBSD.org
Konrad Schroderperseant@NetBSD.org
Georg Schwarzschwarz@NetBSD.org
Lubomir Sedlaciksalo@NetBSD.org
Christopher SEKIYAsekiya@NetBSD.org
Reed Shadgettdent@NetBSD.org
John Shannonshannonjr@NetBSD.org
Tim Shepardshep@NetBSD.org
Naoto Shimazakiigy@NetBSD.org
Ryo Shimizuryo@NetBSD.org
Takao Shinoharashin@NetBSD.org
Takuya SHIOZAKItshiozak@NetBSD.org
Daniel Siegerdsieger@NetBSD.org
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.org
Thor Lancelot Simontls@NetBSD.org
Jeff Smithjeffs@NetBSD.org
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.org
Wolfgang Solfrankws@NetBSD.org
Jörg Sonnenbergerjoerg@NetBSD.org
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.org
T K Spindlerdogcow@NetBSD.org
Matthew Sporledermspo@NetBSD.org
Bill Squiergroo@NetBSD.org
Adrian Steinmannast@NetBSD.org
Bill Studenmundwrstuden@NetBSD.org
Kevin Sullivansullivan@NetBSD.org
Kimmo Suominenkim@NetBSD.org
Grégoire Sutregsutre@NetBSD.org
Sergey Svishchevshattered@NetBSD.org
Robert Swindellsrjs@NetBSD.org
Shin Takemuratakemura@NetBSD.org
TAMURA Kentkent@NetBSD.org
Shin'ichiro TAYAtaya@NetBSD.org
Hasso Tepperhasso@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org
Christoph Toshoktoshok@NetBSD.org
Greg Troxelgdt@NetBSD.org
Tsubai Masanaritsubai@NetBSD.org
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org
UCHIYAMA Yasushiuch@NetBSD.org
Masao Uebayashiuebayasi@NetBSD.org
Shuichiro URATAur@NetBSD.org
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe@NetBSD.org
Todd Vierlingtv@NetBSD.org
Aymeric Vincentaymeric@NetBSD.org
Paul Vixievixie@NetBSD.org
Mike M. Volokhovmishka@NetBSD.org
Krister Walfridssonkristerw@NetBSD.org
Mark Weinemweinem@NetBSD.org
Lex Wennmacherwennmach@NetBSD.org
Leo Weppelmanleo@NetBSD.org
Assar Westerlundassar@NetBSD.org
Frank Willephx@NetBSD.org
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.org
Rob Windsorwindsor@NetBSD.org
Jim Wisejwise@NetBSD.org
Colin Woodender@NetBSD.org
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Yuji Yamanoyyamano@NetBSD.org
David Youngdyoung@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Ysmalstacktic@NetBSD.org
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud@NetBSD.org
S.P.Zeidlerspz@NetBSD.org
Tim Zingelmantez@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

All product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:

NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the NetBSD Foundation.
This product includes software developed by The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. and its contributors.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project. See http://www.netbsd.org/ for information about NetBSD.
This product includes software developed by Intel Corporation and its contributors.
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au)
This product includes software designed by William Allen Simpson.
This product includes software developed at Ludd, University of Lulea, Sweden and its contributors.
This product includes software developed at Ludd, University of Lulea.
This product includes software developed at the Information Technology Division, US Naval Research Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by David Jones and Gordon Ross
This product includes software developed by Hellmuth Michaelis and Joerg Wunsch
This product includes software developed by Internet Research Institute, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Leo Weppelman and Waldi Ravens.
This product includes software developed by Mika Kortelainen
This product includes software developed by Aaron Brown and Harvard University.
This product includes software developed by Adam Ciarcinski for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Adam Glass and Charles M. Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Adam Glass.
This product includes software developed by Advanced Risc Machines Ltd.
This product includes software developed by Alex Zepeda, and Colin Wood for the NetBSD Projet.
This product includes software developed by Alex Zepeda.
This product includes software developed by Amancio Hasty and Roger Hardiman
This product includes software developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Bill Paul.
This product includes software developed by Bodo Moeller. (If available, substitute umlauted o for oe)
This product includes software developed by Boris Popov.
This product includes software developed by Brini.
This product includes software developed by Bruce M. Simpson.
This product includes software developed by Causality Limited.
This product includes software developed by Charles Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Charles M. Hannum, by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman, by William F. Jolitz, and by the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Charles M. Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Christian E. Hopps, Ezra Story, Kari Mettinen, Markus Wild, Lutz Vieweg and Michael Teske.
This product includes software developed by Christian E. Hopps.
This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou.
This product includes software developed by Christos Zoulas.
This product includes software developed by Chuck Silvers.
This product includes software developed by Colin Wood for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Colin Wood.
This product includes software developed by Daan Vreeken.
This product includes software developed by Daishi Kato
This product includes software developed by Daniel Widenfalk and Michael L. Hitch.
This product includes software developed by Daniel Widenfalk for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Dean Huxley.
This product includes software developed by Eric S. Hvozda.
This product includes software developed by Eric S. Raymond
This product includes software developed by Eric Young (eay@@mincom.oz.au)
This product includes software developed by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
This product includes software developed by Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au)
This product includes software developed by K. Kobayashi.
This product includes software developed by K. Kobayashi and H. Shimokawa.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story and by Kari Mettinen.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story, by Kari Mettinen and by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story, by Kari Mettinen, Michael Teske and by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story, by Kari Mettinen, and Michael Teske.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story.
This product includes software developed by Florian Stoehr.
This product includes software developed by Frank van der Linden for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Gardner Buchanan.
This product includes software developed by Garrett D'Amore.
This product includes software developed by Gary Thomas.
This product includes software developed by Gordon Ross
This product includes software developed by Harvard University and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Harvard University.
This product includes software developed by Henrik Vestergaard Draboel.
This product includes software developed by Herb Peyerl.
This product includes software developed by Hidetoshi Shimokawa.
This product includes software developed by Ian W. Dall.
This product includes software developed by Ignatios Souvatzis for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Internet Initiative Japan Inc.
This product includes software developed by James R. Maynard III.
This product includes software developed by Jason L. Wright
This product includes software developed by Jason R. Thorpe for And Communications, http://www.and.com/
This product includes software developed by Joachim Koenig-Baltes.
This product includes software developed by Jochen Pohl for The NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Joerg Wunsch
This product includes software developed by John Birrell.
This product includes software developed by John P. Wittkoski.
This product includes software developed by John Polstra.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan R. Stone for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone and Jason R. Thorpe for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone.
This product includes software developed by Julian Highfield.
This product includes software developed by Kazuhisa Shimizu.
This product includes software developed by Kazuki Sakamoto.
This product includes software developed by Kenneth Stailey.
This product includes software developed by Kiyoshi Ikehara.
This product includes software developed by Klaus Burkert,by Bernd Ernesti, by Michael van Elst, and by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by LAN Media Corporation and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Lloyd Parkes.
This product includes software developed by Lutz Vieweg.
This product includes software developed by MINOURA Makoto, Takuya Harakawa.
This product includes software developed by Marc Horowitz.
This product includes software developed by Marcus Comstedt.
This product includes software developed by Mark Brinicombe for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Mark Brinicombe.
This product includes software developed by Mark Tinguely and Jim Lowe
This product includes software developed by Markus Wild.
This product includes software developed by Masanobu Saitoh.
This product includes software developed by Masaru Oki.
This product includes software developed by Matthew Fredette.
This product includes software developed by Michael Smith.
This product includes software developed by Mike Pritchard.
This product includes software developed by Mike Pritchard and contributors.
This product includes software developed by Minoura Makoto.
This product includes software developed by Niels Provos.
This product includes software developed by Niklas Hallqvist, Brandon Creighton and Job de Haas.
This product includes software developed by Niklas Hallqvist.
This product includes software developed by Paul Kranenburg.
This product includes software developed by Paul Mackerras.
This product includes software developed by Per Fogelstrom
This product includes software developed by Peter Galbavy.
This product includes software developed by Phase One, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Philip A. Nelson.
This product includes software developed by RiscBSD.
This product includes software developed by Roar Thronæs.
This product includes software developed by Rodney W. Grimes.
This product includes software developed by Roger Hardiman
This product includes software developed by Rolf Grossmann.
This product includes software developed by Ross Harvey for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Ross Harvey.
This product includes software developed by Scott Bartram.
This product includes software developed by Scott Stevens.
This product includes software developed by Shingo WATANABE.
This product includes software developed by Softweyr LLC, the University of California, Berkeley, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Stephan Thesing.
This product includes software developed by Steven M. Bellovin.
This product includes software developed by Takashi Hamada.
This product includes software developed by Takumi Nakamura.
This product includes software developed by Tatoku Ogaito for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Terrence R. Lambert.
This product includes software developed by TooLs GmbH.
This product includes software developed by Trimble Navigation, Ltd.
This product includes software developed by WIDE Project and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Waldi Ravens.
This product includes software developed by Wasabi Systems for Zembu Labs, Inc. http://www.zembu.com/
This product includes software developed by Winning Strategies, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Wolfgang Solfrank.
This product includes software developed by Yasushi Yamasaki.
This product includes software developed by Yen Yen Lim and North Dakota State University.
This product includes software developed by Zembu Labs, Inc.
This product includes software developed by the Alice Group.
This product includes software developed by the Center for Software Science at the University of Utah.
This product includes software developed by the Charles D. Cranor, Washington University, University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Engineering Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the David Muir Sharnoff.
This product includes software developed by the Harvard University and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Network Research Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.OpenSSL.org/)
This product includes software developed by the PocketBSD project and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the RiscBSD kernel team
This product includes software developed by the RiscBSD team.
This product includes software developed by the SMCC Technology Development Group at Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors, as well as the Trustees of Columbia University.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana and their contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Urbana-Champaign Independent Media Center.
This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman.
This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman, by William F. Jolitz, and by the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed for the FreeBSD project
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Christopher G. Demetriou.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Emmanuel Dreyfus.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Frank van der Linden
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Ignatios Souvatzis.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jason R. Thorpe.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by John M. Vinopal.
This product includes software developed by Kyma Systems.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Kyma Systems LLC.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Matthias Drochner.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Perry E. Metzger.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Scott Bartram and Frank van der Linden
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Allegro Networks, Inc., and Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Genetec Corporation.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jonathan Stone.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Piermont Information Systems Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by SUNET, Swedish University Computer Network.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Shigeyuki Fukushima.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom Opsycon AB for RTMX Inc, North Carolina, USA.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom.
This software is a component of "386BSD" developed by William F. Jolitz, TeleMuse.
This software was developed by Holger Veit and Brian Moore for use with "386BSD" and similar operating systems. "Similar operating systems" includes mainly non-profit oriented systems for research and education, including but not restricted to "NetBSD", "FreeBSD", "Mach" (by CMU).
This software includes software developed by the Computer Systems Laboratory at the University of Utah.
This product includes software developed by Computing Services at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/).
This product includes software developed by Marshall M. Midden.
This product includes software developed or owned by Caldera International, Inc.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and The Open Group, have given us permission to reprint portions of their documentation.

In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions of the system documentation.

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in NetBSD, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document.

The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html.

This notice shall appear on any product containing this material

This product includes software developed by Advanced Risc Machines Ltd.
This product includes software developed by the RiscBSD kernel team.
This product includes software developed by Scott Stevens.

The End